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Category FLORA  

Ornamental cabbage

2015-12-28 00:00:00

Sem. Cruciferous

Name: the old Latin name for cabbage. Meaning of the word is unclear.

Description: genus includes about 100 species of annual, biennial, rarely perennial plants growing in areas of temperate climate of Europe, Africa and Asia.

Homeland wild cabbage -Greece, where else in the IV century BC. e. were known two forms -smooth and curly leaves. About how highly prized by the ancient Greeks, this plant, says that existed at the time the legend which ascribes the cabbage its "high" origin "Jupiter, working on clarification of the two somehow contradictory utterances of the oracle, so much sweating that sunk a few drops from his shoulder to the ground, and that of the father of the gods and drops grown cabbage "Zolotnitskii NF" Our garden flowers, vegetables and fruit. Their history, role in the life and beliefs of different peoples. "

enjoyed great popularity and a wild cabbage ancient Romans. Cato ascribe all sorts of hygienic properties and said that due to this plant in Rome continued for almost 600 years cures all kinds of diseases, not knowing what the doctor. There was already known forms 6 collard greens. In the XIII century in France, there were two types of collard greens -curly gray and white, and in the XVI century, appears more red curly, which until that time was not mentioned. In England, until the XVI century used only wild collard greens, and all kinds of cultivated imported from Holland. In this country, even erected a monument in the form of cabbage in the cemetery of St. Zhilsa in Dorset man who first brought her to England. In Russian cabbage came from the Black Sea coast, but it was already cabbage.

From collard greens formed various forms with the split and curly leaves. Kurchavolistnye types formed in the central and northern parts of Western Europe, where to this day a large number of varieties grown for food and ornamental purposes. As ornamentals are common in Japan, North America and Russia. In

decorative floriculture commonly used one form and some of its decorative forms and varieties.

Cabbage curly, decorative -B. oleracea L. var. acephala DC.

Motherland -the Atlantic coast of Western Europe.

Biennial herb to 60 cm tall with bare, green, blue-green and dark purple leaves at the base of the stem they are on stalks, in the upper part -sessile, oblong.

photo men`shovoy Alexandra In

culture used only decorative forms:

f. crispa hort. - plant to 60 cm tall with exquisitely-cut leaves, finely curled at the edges, green or purple-violet;
f. laciniata hort. - plant to 60 cm tall, curved, pointed, deeply cut on the edge of leaves, green or red-or white-green, variegated or mixed colors;
f. palmifolia hort. - plant up to 200 cm tall with a pencil as a rosette of leaves at the end of the stem, the leaves are narrow, curved, bubble-bell-shaped, dark green, up to 40 cm or more in length;
f. prolifera hort. - plant to 60 cm tall with large, curved, wavy on the edge, serrated leaves with appendages at the ends of the veins, red, pink and red, white and variegated color, often passing from one color to another within a single sheet.

There are forms of hybrid origin with a rosette of leaves, painted in pink, purple or white, with the stem -green, cut and crimped over the edge. Sortotipov decorative cabbage:

Japanese round variegated white. Average height gustooblistvennye plants. Leaves entire, festoncha something-curved, with short petioles, in the lower and middle tier with slightly pink pigmentation in the upper tier -white with green edges.

Japanese variegated pink-red . Differs from the previous sortotipov coloring of leaves. On all lines are crimson or pink.

Curly green VNIISSOK . Occur as undersized to 50 cm, and tall varieties. Lamina in varying degrees curly.

Curly red VNIISSOK . Tall plants. Differs from the previous sortotipov coloring of leaves and stem: it varies from purple to black tint to blue-violet.

Green racemosa . Sredneroslye plants 50-70 cm lyrate, grayish-green leaves. Record truncated elliptical melkomorschinistaya with toothed edges clipped.

grubokurchavaya Green . Average height of the plant. The leaves are light green, pinnate with lyre-paddle-Big-toothed edges clipped.

Plyumazhnaya mottled white . Average height of the plant. Lyre-pinnate leaves, green with white veins. Plate along the veins and white edge. When the air temperature drops brightness color enhanced.

Plyumazhnaya mottled red . Average height of the plant. Leaves differ from the previous sortotipov coloring they violet-green, spotted, pink and crimson veins. There are plants with uzkorassechennymi similar to lace leaves.

giant Blue . Very tall plants to 1.5 m leaves lyre, bluish or greenish-purple with something gorodcha-toothed edges clipped.

Mosbahskaya . Average height of the plant. Leaves are green, plate-melkofestonchato curved along the edge tonkokurchavaya.

Currently, a variety of decorative cabbages great, but highlighted five main sortotipov: brain, outlet, needle heading out polukochannye. They vary in shape plants columnar, rounded, flattened; height from 30 to 150 cm or higher; color leaf green, yellow, white, pink, red and purple; form sheet outlet. The leaves can be round, flat, curly, lyre-pinnate, redkonadrezannye, with varying degrees of corrugation.

photo Korzhavina Constantine

Robin -middle-grade, plant height of 100-150 cm in diameter -40-50 cm, leafy rosette form with drooping leaves dlinnochereshkovye. Leaves entire, rounded, with silnogofrirovannymi edges, red-violet color. Yield -12-15 kg/m2. Vitamin C content ranged from 45.76 to 49.28 mg%, sugar -0.62-0.68% dry matter -8,32-9,15%. The variety is resistant to low temperatures, relatively resistant to bacterial diseases, fusarium, keel. Recommended for cultivation in all regions of the Russian Federation.

Palmyra -middle-grade, plant height of 100-140 cm in diameter -40-50 cm, leafy rosette form with drooping leaves dlinnochereshkovye. Leaves entire, rounded, with silnogofrirovannymi edged green. Yield -10-12 kg/m2. Vitamin C content ranged from 40.48 to 44.0 mg%, sugar -0,64-0,70% dry matter -8,30-8,81%. The variety is resistant to low temperatures, relatively resistant to bacterial diseases, fusarium, keel. Recommended for cultivation in all regions of the Russian Federation.

Relay -middle-grade, plant height of 30-36 cm in diameter -30-45 cm, forms silnooblistvennuyu dlinnochereshkovye outlet with drooping leaves. Leaves entire, rounded, with silnogofrirovannymi edged green and light green. Yield -8.10 kg/m2. Vitamin C content ranged from 38.72 to 42.24 mg%, sugar -0,68-0,71% dry matter -8,21-8,80%. The variety is resistant to low temperatures, relatively resistant to bacterial diseases, fusarium, keel. Recommended for cultivation in all regions of the Russian Federation.

Paints East -Middle-grade, semi-spreading plant has a diameter of 35-55 cm outlet, height 25-40 cm color rosette of gray-green in the extreme tier, blending smoothly into the purple in the center. Sheet average, round, silnovolnisty on the edge, midrib purple. Petiole 7-10 cm long Yields -13-15 kg/m2. The content of vitamin C -45,76-49,28 mg%, sugar -0.62-0.68% dry matter -8,25-9,10%. The variety is resistant to bacterial diseases and leaf-eating pests, and low temperatures. Recommended for growing in all regions of the Russian Federation.

Photos Lazebnaya Helena

Sparkle -Middle-grade, plant forms sprawling outlet diameter of 32-45 cm, 30-48 cm tall Sheet strongly dissected segment on 13-23 , with average bloom. Fabric has a smooth plate, slightly rolling over the edge of the sheet, with an average venation. Petiole 6-10 cm long Productivity -5-5.5 kg/m2. The content of vitamin C -45,76-49,28 mg% of dry matter -8,98-9,78%, sugar -0,68-0,7%. The variety is resistant to bacterial diseases, leaf-eating pests, and low temperatures. Recommended for growing in all regions of the Russian Federation.

Autumn Waltz -Middle-grade, plant forms compact-elevated outlet diameter 45 cm, height 55 to 75 cm, with srednechereshkovym sheet, the amount of which ranges from 60 to 85 pieces. The leaves are round, with purple-green color silnovolnistym edge and slightly bloom. Leaf surface is smooth, with strong venation. Petiole length is 12 cm Yield -15-17 kg/m2. Vitamin C content ranging from 40.48 to 45.7 mg% sugar -0,68-0,7% solids content -from 8.38 to 8.98%. The variety is resistant to bacterial diseases, pests and leaf-low temperatures. Recommended for growing in all regions of the Russian Federation.

Location: the full development of the plants reach the end of summer, light-requiring, relatively cold-resistant, easy to carry spring and autumn frosts. X olodnye days only increase brightness of coloring of the leaves. As an adult, ornamental cabbage can withstand short-term drop in temperature to -8-12 C. Seedlings of decorative cabbage can withstand temperature drop to -4 ° C. Ornamental kale can grow in partial shade. Only in this case it will be smaller and will be painting not as intense as the sun.

photo EDSR.

Soil: sandy loam or loamy prefer, humus-rich soil.

Care: likes "the good life" when it watered, fed, and loosened. At the first dressing after planting give nitrogen or organic fertilizer. This allows to accelerate the growth and development of plants. On fertile soils just 2-3 feedings at intervals of 7-10 days. On poor soils such need 4-5 feedings. It is not necessary to feed the ornamental cabbage manure. Otherwise you will get a plant with huge leaves, but with a predominance of green in the color tones. It should be abundantly watered in dry weather. Naturally, at the beginning of the growth of regular watering is needed. Staining of leaves begins only when establishing the cool weather.

Diseases and pests: to beauty cabbage remained perfect, not zaoudte about pest control. Spraying after rain solution of 100 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water will help in the fight against moth caterpillars butterflies. In wet weather, the plant should be protected from slugs. The easiest way -to sprinkle the ground around the plant ash or fallen needles.

Reproduction: seeds, 1 g contains 350 pieces. For 100 plants need 0.5 g of seeds. Sow cabbage in the last week of March in pots with a diameter of 3-4 cm They are filled with a mixture of peat, leaf soil and sand in the ratio 2:2:1 and watered. In each pot to a depth of 1 cm is put to sleep and two seed substrate. If the air temperature is in the range of 18-20 C, shoots appear after 2-5 days. At lower temperatures, germination is delayed. They often die from fungal diseases, mainly from the "blackleg". The easiest way to protect seedlings -proper watering. Earth shed before and after sowing. Then stop watering and only slightly sprayed shoots. Watering can already unproven seedlings with significant drying of the soil.

Care seedlings is timely watering and fertilizing two: NPK or Kemira wagon 1 tbsp. spoon on m 2 . First carried out at the present appearance of the second sheet, the second -two weeks before planting in open ground. Particular attention should be paid to the temperature of the growing seedlings. That plants are not stretched, they are placed in a cool, well-lit place temperature 12-16 ° C. 35-40 days hardened seedlings planted in a permanent place in late April -early May. When planting groups between individual plants left distance of 50-60 cm

Photos Bakulina Marina

Decorative cabbage growing faster than cabbage. Therefore, it can be sown directly into the ground from April 25 to May 9. Better to do it in a small teplichke coated nonwoven cover material ar-reel, etc. lutrasil. Sown directly into the ground plants will be smaller than those grown through seedlings, but the "bloom" have time.

Tolerates transplant. During one season can be up to 3 times to change the place of landing, if digging it with great lump of earth and plenty of water. Flowering occurs

the second year after planting in June-July, fruiting. For their seed varieties of cabbage leaf dig plants with roots, cut the lower and middle leaves, leaving only the upper and prikopalis them in the basement in the wet sand until spring. Make sure that the roots do not dry. Before proceeding to the flowering, the plants must undergo a period of vernalization, which lasts from cabbage 4-5 months at 0-2 ° C. In this period there were biochemical processes that gradually prepare the plant to bloom. If put plants on the window, they will constantly increase all winter leaves and after landing in open ground to bloom not pass.

spring plants as early as possible to transplant the flower bed, digging wells previously amended as 1-2 kg of organic fertilizer. For full pollination must drop at least 4-5 plants. Once they begin to grow, fertilize their complex mineral fertilizers. Before flowering put stakes and tie up the plant. After flowering, the pods are formed, which should be protected from small birds. In this case, you have to hang out near the rustling of plastic film strips or throw on a fine mesh testes. As yellowing pods cut off twigs, tie them in bunches and hang in a ventilated place -a barn or shed. , Lay down a film or canvas. After 2-3 weeks the testes put on film and threshing stick. Cabbage seeds have threshed easily. After that, clean the seeds of debris and dosushit in a warm room. You can store them in paper bags. Ornamental cabbage leaf retains germination 3-5 years.

Use: as the original and spectacular decorative foliage plants in single and group plantings, low-growing varieties -in perennial borders and friezes.

photo Severyakovoy Helena

sortotipov decorative cabbage, similar to African palm -Green branched, Green grubokurchavaya, Curly Red, Curly Green, Blue Giant -best suited for single landings. This sredneroslye plant height from 1 to 1.5 m sheet records mostly lyre, with varying degrees of curl. Leaf color from light green to dark purple.

for borders, beds and parterres use other sortotipov: Plyumazhnaya mottled white, mottled Plyumazhnaya red, white variegated Japanese, Japanese variegated pink-red. This low plants from 0.6 to 0.8 m Leaves entire or lyre-curved feather-festooned with color from white to purple. In addition, common cabbage leaves uzkorassechennymi similar to fine lace. By choosing plants of different colors, you can create all kinds of ornaments. Sort decorative cabbage Relay is very good for decoration borders and flower compositions comprising beds, mixborders or rabatok. Well look on beds alone and in combination with perennial and annual flowers varieties female connector Paints East and Autumn Waltz.

Good looks flowerbed with different height and color varieties of cabbage. For example, in the middle of 3-5 plants of the cultivar Language lark, and the edges at a distance of 70 cm Mosbahskuyu. Or red curly high planted in combination with low or green curly red curly low and vice versa.

Decorative cabbage can please you before the New Year, if you transplant it into a large flower pot and set a space.

decorative cabbage leaves are edible and have a pleasant taste. Their young can be eaten as a bitter salad and preserve for the winter. In a strong solution preservative well they retain their shape and color. Chopped leaves and young shoots can stew with potatoes. To remove the bitterness, they should be frozen and thawed before use.

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