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Category FLORA  

Rhodiola rosea, or Golden Root

2015-12-28 00:00:00

Rhodiola rosea
Phodiola rosea
Sem. Crassulaceae
Rhodiola rosea -Rhodiola rosea < i> L ., 1753. R. minor Mill ., 1768. R. odorata Lam ., 1778. R. odora Salisb ., 1796. Sedum rosea L. Scop. , 1771.S. rhodiola DC ., 1805. Sedum dioicum Stokes , 1812. Rhodiola skopolii A. Kerner ex Simonkai , 1896. Tetradium odoratum Dulac , 1867

Description: Rhodiola rosea, or Golden Root -one of the most popular medicinal plants. It contains substances that stimulate the nervous system and have adaptogenic properties, ie increase the resistance of the human body in adverse effects.

Rhodiola rosea Phodiola rosea - is an herbaceous perennial dioecious plant . She shortened thick rhizome with lots of kidney regeneration and few roots. For rhizome characteristic golden glow, while scraping off the outer layer -lemon-yellow color.

Stems and leaves of Rhodiola rosea juicy, fleshy, like all plants of the family Crassulaceae. Stems several, sometimes even up to a hundred, they erect, not branched, 10-40 and up to 60 cm tall. Leaves sessile, alternate, oblong-ovate, acute, entire, 0.7-3.5 cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide, upper larger than the lower. Flowers unisexual, small, yellow, four-membered, collected in dense corymbose inflorescences on top of the stem. Female and male flowers are on different individuals. Fruits -leaflets 6-8 mm long, reddish in autumn. The seeds are very small. First plant described in I century BC. e. physician Dioscorides. The scientific name given by Carl Linnaeus in 1755, the species - rosea -plant got because svezherazlomannogo rhizomes smell a bit like the smell of roses.

Rhodiola rosea -a widespread and highly polymorphic species, ie morphological features of plants in different habitats vary greatly. In our country, Rhodiola rosea occurs most often in the mountains of southern Siberia in the Altai, Sayan, in the mountains of Tuva and Trans-Baikal, at least -in the far north of European Russia, the Urals, in the north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Yakutia, the Far East until Kamchatka and Sakhalin. Grows mainly at altitudes of 1,500 to 2,700 m above sea level on the slopes of all exposures to different environmental conditions. At the upper boundary of its distribution is found directly from the glacier at the bottom -in the forest belt. Best habitats for Rhodiola -places with abundant moisture flowing in the valleys of the mountain streams and rivers, rocky shore, pebbles, lakeshores, wet alpine and subalpine meadows. There Rhodiola forms extensive thickets and dominates among other plants. In drier areas, such as pine and larch sparse subalpine woodlands, in thickets of subalpine shrub, Rhodiola rarer.

Gold square known as the Altai tool that enhances endurance and performance rights. Shepherds and hunters during difficult transitions in the mountains long drink tea using tea leaves as the dried root of Rhodiola. Generally the plant is used in many diseases, but treatment methods remain secret. Ancient Altai belief says that those who find the golden root, to the end of his days will be lucky and healthy, live two centuries. Finds widespread use of Rhodiola rosea in Oriental medicine, it is called even "Tibetan ginseng."

Chemical study of Rhodiola rosea and study the effects of drugs on her person, began in 1961 in Tomsk Medical Institute and the Biological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the USSR. Stimulating and toning properties of Rhodiola preparations proved by experiments on animals and clinical observations. The main active ingredient, on which depend the specific properties of Rhodiola rosea -phenolic glycoside rodiolozid. Since 1975, the Pharmacological Committee of the Ministry of Health allowed to release the drug "liquid extract of Rhodiola." He was appointed as a stimulant and adaptogenic agent to improve mental and physical performance in healthy people and for the treatment of functional disorders of the nervous system. Rhodiola extract is contraindicated in severe symptoms dramatically increased nervous excitability and use toschaemosti cortical brain cells, fevers, hypertensive crises. Rhodiola rosea is also used to produce tonic beverages, medicinal salves. Earlier

stocks of raw Rhodiola rosea in our country were significant. However, unorganized and unsystematic fees, often simply barbaric destruction of this plant led to the fact that natural resources are nearly reduced or even disappeared altogether in some regions, particularly in the Altai. Rhodiola rosea is listed in the Red Book "Wild species of flora of the USSR, in need of protection" in the regional Red Book "Rare and Endangered Plants of Siberia" in the Red Book of the Kazakh SSR.

recovery thickets of Rhodiola requires 15-20 years. Scientists recommend to create special reserves and industrial plantations plants, strictly observe the rules blanks. In the Altai Mountains Altai Republic workpiece roseroot strictly regulated and carried out under licenses Republican Committee for Nature Protection.

Rhodiola rosea grows well in culture, but it is not commercially grown. Found that in the culture of the percentage of the active ingredients in Rhodiola decreases, but increases the mass of rhizomes, rootstocks by pawned on kidney regeneration, the number of seeds. So that the total biological productivity Rhodiola culture compensates for the decrease in the percentage of active ingredients. Amateur gardeners successfully grown rhodiola on garden and home gardens in many parts of Russia.

Rhodiola rosea
Yuri Ovchinnikov photo

Location: open sunny plot.

Soil: Rhodiola rosea grows well in ordinary garden soil with good drainage, it will be best for light, sandy soil. If soils are heavy and clay, sand should be added to 10 kg per 1 m 2 .

Care: for the successful development of Rhodiola rosea needs sufficient uniform watering. In nature rhodiola rhizome exposed to natural silting, in culture as often happens bulging roots above the soil surface. Therefore it is necessary several times over the summer to pour the ground around Rhodiola or just a little spud plants.

Diseases and pests: Badanova weevil, sedumny weevil

Reproduction: seeds and vegetatively. Segments of rhizomes planted 5-6 cm long with 2-3 buds resume, it is very important! not bury them more than 1-1.5 cm must remember that Rhodiola -dioecious plant. Therefore, if you purchased one copy and multiply vegetatively, or you will only male or only female plants, and seeds, of course, will not. Most often

rhodiola propagated by seed. Unstratified seeds have low germination or did not germinate at all. It is best to sow the seeds for the winter in October. For spring sowing need stratification at 0-2 "C for one month. For this seed can be mixed with sand, put in a box and bury a box in the snow. Another option -stratification of seeds in a domestic refrigerator. They should be wrapped in cotton cloth or gauze, moisten, put in a bowl and refrigerate. Seed treatment with 0.1% solution of hydrogen peroxide or manganese-acid potassium for 24 hours immediately after stratification increases germination. After this treatment, it is necessary to sow the seeds immediately, preventing drying. When stratified seeds sown in spring shoots appear very quickly, within a few days, but necessary for germination temperature 15-20 ° C. Seeds of Rhodiola very small, so it`s best to mix before sowing seeds with sand and not be stopped, but only the top prikatat. Seeds can be sown directly in the ground or in boxes, which are then raspikirovat plants in the ground. Before sowing, land has to be very carefully free from weeds. The fact that Rhodiola tiny shoots in the first year develop slowly. Young seedlings need pritenyat and water. By the end of the first year of life of the plant to form the stem of 8-12 cm in height. In August or next spring rhodiola can sit down at a distance of 60-70 cm between rows and 30-40 cm between plants in rows. Plants grown from seed to bloom on 2-3rd year. Blossoms rosewort in central Russia in the second half of May, beginning of June, the seeds ripen in late June, in July.

Rhodiola rosea
Yuri Ovchinnikov photo

Use: blank rhizomes begin no earlier than 3-4 years after planting, and usually do it in August-September. Rhizomes with roots dug first purified from the ground, washed in running water and then dried in the shade. Then the rhizomes are cut into pieces 2-5 cm in length and placed in a dryer at a temperature of 50-60 ° C. Dried in the sun is not recommended. Properly dried rhizome of Rhodiola on the fracture white or pinkish, but not brown. Shelf life 3 years of dried material.

tincture recipe: take a cooking `50 dry root to 0.5 liters. vodka and insist 2-3 weeks, carefully in the dark. Store tincture also in a dark place. Take 10-12 drops in the morning and at lunch for 20-30 minutes. before eating. At night, take the tincture should not be as active ingredients have a tonic effect.

In recent years, Rhodiola rosea grown on individual plots not only for medical purposes, but also as an ornamental plant for rock gardens, rockeries, in various flower beds. Many amateur gardeners acquire planting material of Rhodiola rosea in the markets. Note that sometimes instead plants they sell some types stonecrops such as stonecrop large {Sedum maximum. to distinguish rosewort easily. Just in case, I repeat: the outer layer from the rhizomes of this Rhodiola rosea has a distinctive golden glow or simply metal, while scraping off the outer layer of the detected lemon yellow cork and smell a bit like svezherazlomlennogo rhizomes smell the roses.

Kurgan S. "Golden Root"//"In the world of plants" -2000 -№ 11.

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